There is a fascinating category of stringed instruments, with a strange and bewitching sound, in which Indian lutes, Ethiopian zithers and badly tuned cheap guitars can be found, the “buzzing” strings.
These instruments use a flat bridge, the lower part of the string slightly beats against the flat part, causing this so characteristic “buzz”.
The inclined part, called jawari, allows the buzzing sound, the vibrating string touching the bridge.
the sitar for example uses two flat bridges, the upper bridge for melodic strings, the lower bridge for the sympathetic strings (strings resonating through the effect of the melodic strings vibration, by “sympathy”).
The tampura, a 4-stringed lute played to create a drone, the fine tuning uses cotton rope passed under the strings, which the musician moves to get the desired sound.
Other flat bridges
One of my favorite buzzers, the ethiopian begena lyre, played with one hand, is usually played to support the voice.
the system is the same as on the indian tempura, the pieces of leather raise the rope to allow it to buzz on the flat bridge.
The tromba marina and the hurdy-gurdy use another system to get a buzzing sound, it is not the string that comes into contact with the bridge, but the bridge vibrated with the string and hit the sound box. This bridge has one of its legs attached to the body, the other is free to hit the box, and add a “noise”, which is strongly similar to the saturated trumpet sound.
This mobile bridge is at the origin of this saturated sound allowing a rhythmic playing based on the move with the wheel.
Do not hesitate to complete the list in comments, I will include my own prototypes when they are ready,
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